Unit 1 – Confederation

What I need to know for Tuesday’s History Test

  • The five factors that led to Confederation.
  • The name of one father of confederation, the colony he represented, and his stance on confederation (you will need to include the BECAUSE word in your explanation).
  • The names of the three conferences and what occurred at each conference.
  • The physical features, political features,  people and economic features  of one colony. And at least three features your colony shared with another colony.

Friday, May 3, 2013

Lesson 1.11: Population of Canada After Confederation

 The census of 1871 was the first one held after Confederation in 1867. It showed that the population was made up as follows.

*Remember: At this time, Canada included only Ontario, Québec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia.

Population of Canada* by Ethnic Origin, 1871





1 264 088



1 082 940



846 414


Other European

239 873





First Nations

23 037



21 496



7 909



3 485 761


  1. Create a bar graph showing the numbers of each ethnic group. Use regular graph paper or GLM 5 Graph Paper.

Thursday, May 2, 2013

Lesson 1.10: Confederation

On July 1, 1867, a new country was born. The Dominion of Canada contained four new provinces: Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. Queen Victoria  chose Ottawa as the capital. John A. Macdonald became Canada’s first prime minister. The act that made Canada independent was called the British North American Act. It was re-named the constitution in 1982.

The BNA stated:

  • Canada would have a federal system. There would be a parliament for the whole country and a legislature for each province.
  • French and English would be the languages of parliament.
  • Parliament would have a House of Commons and a Senate.
  • The House of Commons would be elected by the voters and the Senate would be appointed by the prime minister.


Tuesday, April 30, 2013

Lesson 1.9: The Quebec Conference and the London Conference

The Quebec Conference

Quebec Conference 2

The London Conference

London Conference-1

Fathers of Confederation

Monday, April 29, 2013

Lesson 1.8: Fathers of Confederation and the Conferences

The Fathers of Confederation were the architects of the plan that resulted in the proposal that would bring the individual British American colonies together under a Federalist system. There were three main conferences which were held and to be included as a Father of Confederation, it means to have been in attendance during the debates during one of the conferences. These conferences were

  1. The Charlottetown Conference – 1864

  2. The Quebec Conference – 1864

  3. The London Conference – 1866

Wednesday, April 24, 2013

Lesson 1.7: Three more factors that drew the BNA Colonies together


Factor 3: Changing British Attitudes: Britain wanted to become less involved in the government of their  colonies, because it was very time-consuming and expensive. It was time for the colonies to become more independent.

Factor 4: A Railway Was Needed: To encourage trade, increase security and to eventually link Canada from “Sea to Sea”, a railway was need. A “ribbon of steel” would connect the colonies into a single nation.

Factor 5: Fenian Raids: (Read Page H41)

Important Events

  • The Charlottetown Conference:
  • The Quebec Conference:

Tuesday, April 23, 2013

Lesson 1.6: Factors that Drew the BNA Colonies Together

  • After watching Episode 8 of Canada: A People’s History, list five factors (with a brief description of each factor)  that threatened the future of British North America.

Factor 1: American Civil War: The North side of the American Civil War threatened to invade British North America because the perception was that Britain sided with the South.

Factor 2: Political Deadlock: Canada East and Canada West could not agree and the government kept failing.

Monday, April 22, 2013

Lesson 1.5: Economic Features of British North America (BNA)

In the 1850s: The economy of BNA was becoming industrialized.

• Industrialize: develop industries, especially manufacturing industries.

• Spread was affected by geography, transportation and population.

• Factories built in urban areas.

Thursday, April 18th, 2013

Lesson 1.4: Political Features of British North America (BNA)

British North America Sheet (dragged)

Political System of the Canada’s in the 1850’s
• Crown appointed the governor
• Governor usually British nobility
• Governor appointed the members of the legislative council and executive council 

• Executive council decided what bills were introduced to the legislature
• A bill needed to be approved by the legislative assembly, legislative council and the governor to
become law
• Male property owners
• Elected members of the legislative assembly
Legislative Assembly
• Canada East and Canada West had same amount of seats
• Sometimes caused political deadlock
• Two sides fought about best way to solve problems

During this period

  • Write three separate pieces of information (facts) into your chart about the political features of your colony. Include: a description of its climate during the summer and winters; a list of nearby bodies of water; a list of neighbouring colonies; a brief description of the terrain and natural environment.

Tuesday, April 16th, 2013

Lesson 1.3: Physical Features of British North America (BNA)

In the 1850s: The colonies of British North America were separated by vast distances, bodies of water and difficult terrain. Those who wished to unite the colonies and form one country would have to overcome obstacles imposed by the challenging landscape.

During this period

  • Write four separate pieces of information (facts) into your chart about the physical features of your colony. Include: a description of its climate during the summer and winters; a list of nearby bodies of water; a list of neighbouring colonies; a brief description of the terrain and natural environment.

For example: Vancouver’s Island – Physical Features

  • Climate was warm and moist in the summer and temperate (mild temperatures/above freezing) and wet in the winters. 
  • Surrounded by the Pacific Ocean.
  • Thousands of kilometres away from other colonies. However, it is close to New Caledonia, which is controlled by the British.
  • It has a fairly mountainous terrain.


Monday, April 15th, 2013

Lesson 1.2: Colonies of British North America (BNA)

(copy out below three sentences)

In the 1850s: During this era, north of the United States consisted of seven colonies: Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Canada East, Canada West and Vancouver’s Island. Also, there was the North-West Territories, which was controlled by the British, but not a formal colony. In addition, there was  New Caledonia and Rupert’s Land, which were both controlled by the Hudson’s Bay company.

The People of British North America

During this period

  • Write four separate pieces of information (facts) into your chart about the people in your colony. Include the amount of people, languages spoken, people’s cultural background and elements of everyday life in the colonies. 

Tuesday, April 9th, 2013

Lesson 1.1: Intro to Confederation

Lesson Focus: Why did some of the colonies put aside differences and create a new country—Canada?

By the end of this unit I will need to know the following terms:

  1. Confederation:the union of provinces and territories forming Canada.
  2. Political Deadlock: a situation where progress cannot be made because the parties involved do not agree.
  3. Reciprocity: an exchange of privileges or favours as a basis for relations between two countries.
  4. Intercolonial trade: trade among the British North America colonies.
  5. Corn Laws: British laws that governed the import and export of grain; in Britain, cereal grains were called corn.

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